aryan invasion theory David Reich Indology tech Tony Joseph

Journalist Attempts to Revive Aryan Invasion Myth Using Discredited Genetic Research

Journalist Attempts to Revive Aryan Invasion Myth Using Discredited Genetic Research

Tony Joseph, a former business journalist, has revealed a brand new ebook titled “Early Indians: The Story of Our Ancestors and Where We Came From” [1].

Joseph is a vociferous advocate of the Aryan Invasion Concept (AIT). I have up to now debunked [2] his try and “settle” the AIT debate [3]. I’ve also debunked [4] his try and “answer” the question of “How We, The Indians, Got here To Be” [5].

In his new guide, Joseph purports to disclose your complete history of India’s historic previous and conclusively reply questions akin to “Who have been the Harappans?” “Did the Aryans migrate to India?” and “When did the caste system start?”

The gist of the e-book could be discovered on page 221 where he concludes by making the following claims:

  1. India is a multi-source civilization.
  2. The genetic lineages of “Out of Africa migrants” who reached India sixty-five millennia in the past type the bedrock of India’s inhabitants.
  3. West Asian migrants built the Harappan civilization which was associated with the Dravidian languages.
  4. East Asian migrants brought new languages, crops, and farming methods to India.
  5. Central Asian Sanskrit-speaking Hindu Aryans have been the last emigrate to India; they “reshaped” India’s society in “elementary ways”.

In other phrases, Joseph’s guide is a recent try and re-establish the AIT as a strong concept of the origin of Hinduism and the Sanskrit language, regardless of an immense quantity of proof on the contrary [6].

The ebook’s conclusions are based mostly upon genetic studies which were completely invalidated

The guide’s findings are largely based mostly upon paleogenomic studies carried out by David Reich and his group at Harvard Medical Faculty.

Nearly all of the guide’s conclusions are drawn from two research by Reich’s workforce:

  1. A preprint (non-peer-reviewed analysis paper) titled “The Genomic Formation of South and Central Asia” [7] which was co-authored by 92 scientists from all over the world, co-authored and co-directed by Reich, and lead-authored by a member of Reich’s group named V. Narasimhan.
  1. An older paper titled “Large Migration from the Steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe” [8].

The preprint (Narasimhan et al.) suffers from a variety of obtrusive points.

The research is predicated on historic DNA from 612 people from numerous areas and durations: Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (5600-1200 BCE), the Steppe east of the Ural Mountains, including Kazakhstan (4799-1000 BCE), and Pakistan’s Swat valley (1200 BCE to 1 CE).

The research determines a complete of three historic people from Turkmenistan and Iran to be “Harappan migrants”, regardless of not getting access to any actual Harappan DNA for making a real comparability.

The research deems these three people to characterize an “Indus periphery” population, and because the research doesn’t have access to any actual Harappan DNA for making a real comparability (some extent that bears repeating), these three overseas DNA samples are made to “stand in” as “proxies” for your complete Harappan inhabitants itself!

That is the very definition of a round argument.

The Harappan civilization had a population of over five million individuals at its peak. It is absurd to reach at sweeping conclusions about its genetic make-up based mostly on three dubious overseas DNA samples. However, that’s precisely what the research does.

Moreover, the research makes another arbitrary and dubious assumption: it assumes the Onge tribes-people who inhabit the Little Andaman Island to be representative of what it calls the “Historic Ancestral South Indians (AASI)”, whom Joseph refers to because the “First Indians” in his guide.

That is problematic in the excessive, as it’s well-known that the Andamanese individuals have been cut-off from the remainder of humanity for several tens of hundreds of years, and subsequently, any genetic affinity or kinship they could have with different teams can solely be distant and tenuous at greatest.

These are vital methodological problems that invalidate any conclusions that the research makes. It’s subsequently not shocking that the preprint has not been accepted for publication by any scientific journal till date.

However, Joseph touts the Narasimhan et al. preprint as the epitome of scientific achievement and bases a lot of his e-book’s claims on it.

The older research by Reich’s group (Haak et al.) makes the doubtful claim of with the ability to affiliate language (and tradition) with DNA. It purports to help the hypothesis that the steppe Yamnaya culture represents the origin of Indo-European (IE) languages and culture.

The conclusions of Haak et al. are completely demolished by the legendary Russian archaeologist Leo Klejn in two papers revealed in Acta Archaeologica [9] and the European Journal of Archaeology [10].

Within the first paper, Klejn questions the circular argument the geneticists make: no-one has ever recognized a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) tradition, which invalidates the whole basis for the claim that large migrations from one “residence” introduced Indo-European languages and tradition to different regions. He raises the point that the Yamnaya culture could also be Indo-Iranian or Indo-Aryan.

In the second paper, which is a dialogue paper between Klejn, Reich et al. and Willerslev et al., Klejn reduces the geneticists’ arguments to complete rubble. The geneticists should not have solutions to very primary questions, corresponding to, what precisely is PIE.

There are other points:

  1. Archaeologically, the European Bronze Age Corded Ware tradition is practically contemporaneous with the Yamnaya culture. Subsequently the geneticists’ declare that the previous was descended from the latter is falsified. It is extra doubtless that branches of 1 individuals migrated to both Yamnaya and the Corded Ware, which explains the observed genetic affinity between both.
  1. The Yamnaya had clear contacts with the Middle Danube, so they could have given Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan options to Italo-Celtic languages. For instance, “raja” (Sanskrit), “regis”, “rex” (Latin), “ri” (Gaelic), “rix” (Gaulish) for king. Nevertheless it is unlikely that Yamnaya migrants would have reached the North of Europe, where the languages have very totally different characteristics: within the Germanic and Nordic languages, and even English, “raja” translates to “king” and its variants like “kong” and ”könig”.
  1. Within the second paper, the geneticists admit “other migrations from the Steppe” (which they are unable to determine) might have brought IE languages to Europe. Aside from the repeat of the circular declare (why Steppe again?) and the shortage of any foundation for making this wild claim, they don’t appear to have realized the actually damning self-contradiction in that statement: if “different” migrations from the Steppe might have brought IE languages to Europe, meaning other differentiated branches of IE have been already present on the Steppe! So the place did these branches originate, in the event that they have been already in a differentiated type on the Steppe, ready to launch into Europe? Might these be the people who migrated to each Corded Ware and Yamnaya, mentioned in 1?

Level 2 turns into more fascinating, considering that it’s a one-time historic linguistics type of agree with archaeological remark.

Finno-Ugric languages are recognized to have Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan loanwords, however not vice versa. This might imply, only some Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan migrants had come to the Steppe, coming in touch with the Finno-Ugric audio system, leaving the majority of the Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan speakers behind.

Additionally, because the loanwords in Finno-Ugric usually are not from PIE, however from one specific daughter branch, PIE audio system have been clearly not current on the Steppe. The parsimonious rationalization for all that is, the house of IE was properly to the south of the Steppe (in other phrases, India).

From the above, it’s clear that the genetics-based arguments of Reich and his workforce, which type the idea of Joseph’s guide, are utterly and completely invalidated.

Understanding Reich’s deeply flawed analysis methodology

Imagine that a workforce of geneticists undertakes a research to find out the ancestry of the individuals of North America utilizing solely genetic evidence. They acquire ten bone samples which are as much as 4 centuries previous from one archaeological website.

DNA is extracted from the samples. It is analyzed, and the samples are determined to symbolize individuals who belonged to 3 separate ethnic teams: French, English, and Africans.

Based mostly on these outcomes, the workforce declares that trendy North People are descended from a “sex-based admixture” of French, English, and African individuals.

This conclusion is patently incorrect as a result of it is well-known that the Americas have been settled by Indigenous People at the least 13,000 years in the past, and European colonization did not start till 1498.

So, what did the geneticists do incorrect?

Firstly, they used a very small variety of samples (ten) to infer the ancestry of the individuals of a whole continent.

Secondly, they studied samples taken from a single archaeological website, which represents an infinitesimal pin-point in a continent that covers an area of almost 25 million square km.

Thirdly, they studied samples which might be solely up to 400 years previous.

Should they not have seemed for a bigger variety of samples from totally different archaeological sites unfold across the continent? Should they not have seemed for older samples – samples which might be 1,000 years previous? 2,000 years previous? 10,000 years previous?

Is it not attainable that by wanting further again in time and in several geographical places, they might have found vastly totally different genetic outcomes?

Should they haven’t tried to confirm whether or not their findings are in line with recognized archaeological evidence?

These fictional geneticists’ methodology is harking back to the ancient Indian parable of the blind males and the elephant, where every blind man feels a unique part of the elephant’s physique, and comes to an incorrect conclusion concerning the nature of the elephant based mostly on incomplete, limited information.

Why did the geneticists make such obvious mistakes? Why did they not seek to take a look at the larger picture? Have been they novices, not yet well-versed in the perfect practices of their craft?

What in the event that they weren’t? What if they’re the world’s pre-eminent workforce of geneticists, outfitted with the world’s greatest laboratory and with entry to vast quantities of funding?

What if they deliberately excluded samples older than 400 years from their research? What if they have been motivated by a racist, Eurocentric worldview that led them to seek to deny the existence of Pre-Columbian Native American civilizations?

A quick historical past of Eurocentrism, racism, and white supremacism

As Europe colonized, subjugated and devastated the Americas, Asia and Africa over the previous 5 centuries or so, it turned immensely rich while the remainder of the world sank into poverty and despair. With immense wealth got here a sense of immense superiority which manifested itself in the form of Eurocentrism, racism and white supremacism. White pores and skin came to be thought-about superior, darkish pores and skin inferior. European languages and culture came to be considered being refined and superior, whereas subjugated peoples got here to be seen as having no tradition or history.

Contemplate the French explorer, naval officer, botanist and cartographer Jules Sébastien César Dumont d’Urville (23 Might 1790 – eight Might 1842) who explored Antarctica in addition to a lot of Oceania. He arbitrarily categorised the individuals of Oceania into three broad categories, a scheme that persists till right now: light-skinned Polynesians who inhabit the Japanese Pacific, Micronesians who inhabit “small islands” north of the equator, and black-skinned Melanesians who reside in Papua New Guinea and islands near it.

Europeans came to imagine the lighter-skinned Polynesians as a type of aristocracy, whereas the black-skinned Melanesians have been thought-about to be naturally backward.

When it got here to the question of their origins, a consensus emerged that the black Melanesians originated in nearby Papua which is inhabited by “savage” and “backward” black tribes, whereas the lighter-skinned, extra “advanced” Polynesians should have originated in Asia, wherefrom they undertook lengthy, arduous, heroic voyages to succeed in and populate the farthest Japanese Pacific islands.

How Jules D’Urville’s arbitrarily categorised the peoples of Oceania

The underlying assumption was that dark skin was inferior to lighter skin, and that superior tradition, know-how, and social buildings have been inextricably linked to migrations of superior, civilizing peoples from far-away lands.

European colonialism was subsequently justified as being a part of the natural order of things wherein superior, enlightened, lighter-skinned peoples undertook heroic voyages to new lands and acted as a civilizing influence on inferior, savage, darker-skinned natives.

Such racist attitudes persist properly into the present day, in numerous spheres of life, and will live on until the remainder of the world recovers economically and decolonizes culturally.

In the educational area, this is evident in a Eurocentric strategy to world history, and a patronizing angle in the direction of Asian and African culture, societies, and historical past – something that Edward Stated is credited with first drawing attention to in his guide “Orientalism“.

Contemplate the similar arbitrary classification of Indians into descendants of superior, civilizing white-skinned Aryans and inferior, dark-skinned Dravidians, a scheme that was first proposed by the German orientalist Max Müller in the 19th century. This scheme has additionally endured to today. It drives the mainstream narrative of how India’s population and civilization originated and advanced, regardless of an immense amount of proof on the contrary.

Joseph’s e-book is an try and perpetuate the Aryan Invasion Fantasy and its insidious 21st-century mutation: the Aryan Migration Fable.

Educational racism and David Reich

On March 23, 2018, David Reich wrote an essay in the New York Occasions, promoting his new guide “Who We Are and How We Obtained Here: Historic DNA and the New Science of the Human Past”. The essay was titled “How Genetics Is Altering Our Understanding of ‘Race’” [11]. In this essay, Reich re-ignited an previous controversy about race, genetics and IQ, which hearkens back to the days of the Third Reich and the racist Nobel-prize profitable scientists William Shockley, James Watson and Francis Crick.

Reich wrote:

“Is efficiency on an intelligence check or the variety of years of faculty an individual attends shaped by the best way an individual is brought up? In fact. However does it measure one thing having to do with some facet of conduct or cognition? Virtually definitely. And since all traits influenced by genetics are anticipated to differ throughout populations (because the frequencies of genetic variations are not often precisely the identical throughout populations), the genetic influences on conduct and cognition will differ throughout populations, too.”

And:

“I’ve deep sympathy for the priority that genetic discoveries might be misused to justify racism. But as a geneticist I also know that it’s simply not potential to ignore average genetic variations amongst ‘races.’”

In other phrases, Reich revealed himself to be a proponent of the arbitrary, superficial, pseudo-scientific and racist concepts of “race” and “racial variations”, which derive their origins in pseudo-sciences resembling phrenology and dubious classification schemes similar to those d’Urville and Müller proposed.

As a scientist myself, right here’s what I can inform you: Race is a social assemble, not a scientific reality. There isn’t any such factor as a “pure race” or ethnicity. The truth is, it’s more and more turning into clear that there’s not even such a thing as a pure species.

Reich’s essay prompted 67 outstanding scientists, scholars and researchers to put in writing an open letter [12] in response to his claims. The letter says:

“(Reich) misrepresents the various scientists and scholars who’ve demonstrated the scientific flaws of considering ‘race’ a organic class. Their strong physique of scholarship recognizes the existence of geographically based mostly genetic variation in our species, however exhibits that such variation shouldn’t be in line with biological definitions of race. Nor does that variation map exactly onto ever altering socially outlined racial teams.”

And:

“Reich critically misunderstands and misrepresents considerations which are central to current critiques of how biomedical researchers — including Reich — use classes of ‘race’ and ‘inhabitants’.”

This isn’t Reich’s solely brush with controversy. He’s notorious, for example, for obliquely disparaging Hinduism and comparing it with Nazi ideology in the identical essay.

There are additionally long-standing, persistent claims that Reich is related to extremely influential genetics blogs reminiscent of Dienekes’ Anthropology, West Hunter, Dispatches from Turtle Island, and the Eurogenes Weblog, all of which enforce a distorted Eurocentric version of human prehistory, help theories that deeply undermine many indigenous peoples (akin to within the Americas), and help the Aryan Invasion Concept in guarded varieties.

Reich isn’t alone in this: It’s well-known that many geneticists, linguists, and different specialists both learn and comment, often underneath pseudonyms, on these blogs.

How historic DNA analysis systematically distorts the truth

An article revealed earlier this yr within the New York Occasions [13] blew the lid off a surprising scandal in paleogenomics. David Reich figures as a central character in this scandal.

The article reveals extremely troubling details about how historic DNA analysis is completed. It reveals that:

  1. There’s in depth collaboration to the point of collusion between three well-funded and well-connected labs that dominate the sector of paleogenomics, in a fashion that harms their rivals. These labs are the Division of Genetics, Harvard Medical Faculty (David Reich), the Department of Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany (director: Svante Pääbo), and the Division of Archeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany (director: Johannes Krause).
  1. Small labs are unable to compete with the Huge Three as a result of they lack access to the datasets that may allow them to put their work within the context of the bigger image. The only strategy to get access to the info is to provide their samples to Reich or one of many other two teams, in return for being added to the record of contributors of their research paper.
  1. The Massive Three labs perform as an oligopoly. Their energy extends to funding, samples, knowledge, and even know-how. They’ve marginalized all competition and their dominance of the sector leaves researchers and archaeologists with no choice but to submit samples to them in return for a token junior authorship.
  1. Samples are routinely procured by extraordinarily doubtful means, typically violating ethical norms. This has created a “smash and seize” tradition among archaeologists through which hopeful co-authors source their bones by any means vital, even beneath false pretenses. Amongst teams at work on any given excavation, it takes solely a single colleague to ship a bone to one of the industrial giants for all the group to lose management of their findings. Historic specimens in museums, too, are being swept up by these perverse incentives.
  1. It isn’t unusual for junior authors to be given simply days to evaluate a completed manuscript, with little input into its broader framing.
  1. This has created an atmosphere of intense suspicion, nervousness and paranoia, among archaeologists and geneticists alike. In dozens of interviews with practitioners of both disciplines, virtually everybody requested anonymity for worry of professional reprisal.
  1. Reich and his workforce are accused by an ancient-DNA researcher in Turkey of seeing the rest of world as the 19th-century colonialists saw Africa — as raw-material opportunities and nothing else.
  1. Reich is proven to repeatedly arrive at broad, grandiose, sweeping conclusions about historic migrations, invasions and wholesale replacements of one population by another on the idea of flimsy and doubtful evidence – in one case, on the idea of a single sample from a single island – and sometimes uses totally different, unrelated, arbitrary inhabitants teams as stand-in proxies for contemporary populations whose DNA samples he’s unable to acquire.
  1. Reich’s staff makes “disproportionate or even wholly unwarranted claims on the idea of each the archaeological and genetic proof it supplies”.
  1. Reich and his staff invariably categorical absolute certainty about their inferences and conclusions and presume to offer the ultimate phrase on the ancestry and historical past of whole areas and cultures. They do not think about the likelihood that their inferences might have been skewed by biases and faults within the set of assumptions which are inherent in their complicated statistical models. Their paleogenomic papers, that are riddled with assumptions which might be typically weak, tenuous or outright unwarranted, find yourself being interpreted as reality. (What the New York Occasions article doesn’t reveal is that when revealed, Reich’s papers are immediately taken up and politicized by blogs reminiscent of Eurogenes, West Hunter, and so forth.).
  1. There is a surprising nexus between Reich and the journal Nature, which is the world’s pre-eminent scientific journal, in addition to other scientific journals. Nature is shown to violate long-established peer-review norms and requirements when dealing with Reich’s papers. Nature’s actions exhibit clear favoritism towards Reich’s work.
  1. For example, Nature allowed Reich, towards its personal norms, to revise and resubmit a paper that was rejected by reviewers (rejections are last, papers which might be rejected usually are not allowed to be resubmitted).
  1. Reich resubmitted his paper on the idea of flimsy new evidence. The revised paper addressed very few of the reviewers’ considerations. However, Nature’s editors overruled the reviewers’ steadfast objections and accepted the paper. Editors overruling a peer-review panel is exceptional.
  1. Nature’s preferential remedy of Reich and his staff is demonstrated by the fact that different researchers and groups that arrived on the similar conclusions as Reich, however by totally different means, had their papers inexplicably rejected, which defies logic and justice.
  1. The journal Present Biology accepted a paper by Reich’s staff only one week after it was submitted. Peer evaluation and acceptance of a scientific paper in every week is an unprecedented feat, exceptional even among low-quality scientific journals. It’s extraordinary even amongst low-quality scientific journals. It takes lots of time to evaluate a scientific paper – sometimes a number of months – as any scientist can attest. The acceptance of a posh genetics paper in only one week is absurd to the purpose of being ridiculous. It is a pink flag that raises the very real specter of attainable scientific misconduct and/or corruption.

These are however a couple of of numerous extraordinarily critical and troubling revelations within the New York Occasions article.

These revelations establish a case of attainable ongoing scientific misconduct and raise critical doubts concerning the veracity of all the corpus of Reich’s research. They reveal that the obvious points in Reich’s papers that help the AIT are repeated throughout all the corpus of his and his staff’s analysis.

The New York Occasions revelations indicate the need to critically re-examine every single research paper revealed by Reich and his staff.

They invalidate all conclusions drawn on the idea of Reich and his staff’s research. They invalidate Reich’s studies purporting to help the Aryan Invasion Principle. They invalidate your complete foundation for Joseph’s ebook.

Most importantly, the New York Occasions article reveals that there is an ongoing, concerted effort between influential, well-connected geneticists and a few of the world’s main scientific journals to maintain perpetuating distorted, racist, Eurocentric narratives of human prehistory, including the colonial Aryan Invasion Concept.

A worldwide neo-colonial nexus revealed

Racist, Eurocentric distortions of historical past are invariably focused at disadvantaged cultures and creating nations which might be recovering from current colonization. Such distortions misinform and mislead previously colonized individuals by portraying their culture in quite a lot of adverse ways.

This results in the gradual erosion of native tradition and creates artificial divisions within the focused societies, which makes them amenable to exploitation by an assortment of overseas, sometimes Western (however of late, Middle Japanese and even Chinese) neo-colonial forces.

It is subsequently right to view the act of distorting history as an act of neo-colonial aggression.

India’s left-secular-Nehruvian establishment, which has been lowered to grasping at straws to stay related in a nation that’s more and more confident and self-aware, has found widespread cause between its Hinduphobic revisionist agenda and the racist, Eurocentric agenda of Western teachers comparable to David Reich.

Each agendas search to painting Hinduism and Sanskrit as being overseas to India. Each seek to disparage, denigrate, and erode India’s millennia-old, extremely diversified, harmonious, and tolerant indigenous spiritual system and culture. Each seek to create synthetic schisms inside India’s society to be able to make it amenable to exploitation by neo-colonial forces.

The Indian left-secular-Nehruvian establishment has been more and more leaning on David Reich’s distorted research of late, a salient example of which is a scarcely coherent article by someone named Kai Friese wherein he indulges in character assassination of a whole workforce of Indian scientists on Reich’s behalf.

In my rebuttal to Friese’s article, I wrote a few hidden nexus [14] between India’s Marxist academia, left-secular ecosystem, Western teachers, and India’s mainstream media.

Joseph’s ebook is an unmistakable sign of this nexus in action.

The New York Occasions article has ripped the duvet off this nexus and revealed some of its international contours.

Conclusion: Joseph’s ebook sells racist, Eurocentric lies about Indian history based mostly on completely discredited research

To summarize, we’ve the following:

  1. Obtrusive issues, round logic, dubious, arbitrary and unwarranted assumptions and severe methodological problems in David Reich’s studies that help the Aryan Invasion Principle.
  1. Two papers by the legendary Russian archaeologist Leo Klejn that completely and conclusively lay naked and demolish the weak assumptions, flawed methodology, and conclusions of Reich’s pro-AIT analysis.
  1. Documented proof of Reich’s racism and Eurocentrism.
  1. A damning New York Occasions article that exposes surprising malpractices within the historic DNA research ecosystem, reduces Reich’s scientific fame to mud and discredits almost each piece of analysis he and his staff have revealed.

The above evidence, taken together, invalidates every single conclusion introduced by Tony Joseph in his ebook.

Joseph’s guide is riddled with outright false claims (pages 9, 10, 88 – Sanskrit was delivered to India sometime after 2000 BCE by migrants who referred to as themselves “Aryans”. Really?! The place’s the evidence?), circular logic, unnecessary ambiguity, idle speculation, sly dissembling, misinterpretations, misrepresentations, false claims and conclusions, pretend information, references to pizza, in depth, repeated Reich quotes, especially about “extraordinary hierarchies and imbalances in energy”, references to Ambedkar, references to the “ankles of Indian society”, references to the Manusmriti, and outright, utter nonsense at occasions.

The illogic is so severe at occasions that the ebook reads virtually as if it have been written with the assistance of David Reich himself.

However most importantly, and this bears repeating, Joseph’s e-book is predicated on Reich’s incorrect, flawed, distorted, racist interpretations of prehistory which were completely and completely invalidated.

Joseph’s ebook is a calculated, calibrated neo-colonial enterprise that was conceived, designed, and launched with a singular function in mind: to revive the discredited Aryan Invasion Principle and thereby mislead Indians and alienate them from the truth about their historical past.

Be warned, pricey reader. Do not permit yourself to be misled.

Acknowledgments

The writer want to thank Dr. A. Okay. Suri for bringing the Klejn papers to his discover and providing a superb summary. The writer want to thank M. D. and G. L. for insightful discussions.

References

  1. Joseph, T. Early Indians: The Story of Our Ancestors and The place We Came From. Juggernaut (2018).
  1. Chavda, A. L. Propagandizing the Aryan Invasion Debate: A Rebuttal to Tony Joseph. IndiaFacts.Org (22-06-2017).
  1. Joseph, T. How genetics is settling the Aryan migration debate. TheHindu.Com (16-06-2017).
  1. Chavda, A. What Reich’s Research Says And Doesn’t About How Indians Came To Be. SwarajyaMag.Com (20-04-2018).
  1. Joseph, T. How We, The Indians, Came to Be. TheQuint.Com (03-04-2018).
  1. Chavda, A. L. Aryan Invasion Fantasy: How 21st Century Science Debunks 19th Century Indology. IndiaFacts.Org (05-05-2017).
  1. Narasimhan, V. et al. The Genomic Formation of South and Central Asia (2018). doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/292581
  1. Haak W. et al. Large migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe. Nature (2015). doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14317
  1. Klejn, L. S. The steppe speculation of Indo-European origins stays to be confirmed. Acta Archaeologica 88,1,193-204 (2017). doi:10.1111/j.1600-0390.2017.12184.x
  1. Klejn, L. S. et al. Discussion: Are the Origins of Indo-European Languages Defined by the Migration of the Yamnaya Tradition to the West? European Journal of Archaeology, 21(1), 3-17. doi:10.1017/eaa.2017.35
  1. Reich, D. How Genetics Is Altering Our Understanding of ‘Race’. NYTimes.Com (23-03-2018).
  1. Kahn, J. et al. How Not To Speak About Race And Genetics. BuzzFeedNews.Com (30-03-2018).
  1. Lewis-Kraus, G. Is Historic DNA Research Revealing New Truths — or Falling Into Previous Traps? NYTimes.Com (17-01-2019).
  1. Chavda, A. Lies, deception and character assassination: Aryan invasion propaganda touches new low. MyNation.Com (07-09-2018).

Early Indians: The Story of Our Ancestors and Where We Got here From by Tony Joseph. Hardcover – 20 Dec 2018. Juggernaut Books. Rs. 699

Disclaimer: The opinions expressed within this text are the private opinions of the writer. IndiaFacts doesn’t assume any duty or liability for the accuracy, completeness, suitability, or validity of any info in this article.

A. L. Chavda is a theoretical physicist whose analysis interests embrace dark matter, darkish power, black hole physics, quantum gravity, and the physics of the very early universe.