Macro-Economic and Banking Sector Themes For 2019 | Wetinberate| Realtime Naira Exchange Rates


January 28, 2019   03:05 PM / GTBank


‘Winter is Coming’ isn’t a climate forecast, it’s

the motto of Home Stark, one of many Nice Homes of Westeros in HBO’s medieval

fantasy TV collection, Recreation of Thrones. This phrase, which conveys a way of

inevitability and fixed vigilance, sometimes excites lovers of the TV collection

eliciting anticipation and suspense. ‘Sanctions are Coming’, President Trump’s

satirical warning within the wake of the breakdown of the Iranian Nuclear deal

did not elicit a lot enthusiasm. 2018 was a busy yr for the Trump

Administration, as the worldwide energy wielded its huge stick towards numerous different

nations together with China. The Trump Administration slammed China with export

tariffs operating into billions of US dollars and China responded likewise. This

deadlock between the united statesA and China, which decelerated after they signed a

90-day truce that ended an intense 12-months commerce struggle, turned a serious supply

of worldwide financial nightmare. 

Talking of nightmares, French President Emmanuel

Macron appears to be dwelling by means of one, with   the Yellow Vest

Protests which began as an indication towards rising gasoline costs (which

have been subsequently shelved) and redistribution of wealth has ballooned right into a

full-scale motion that’s now demanding his resignation. On the opposite aspect of

the English Channel, Theresa Might staggers on, surviving a Vote of No Confidence

and a couple of defeats in Parliament over her draft Brexit deal. The Saudis have been additionally

put to query within the wake of the demise of Jamil Khashoggi, bringing to fore

the ageold query on the worth of true press freedom. 

In Asia, pressure eased on the Korean Peninsula as

leaders of the North and South agreed steps in the direction of attaining peace and

financial cooperation between the erstwhile adversaries. On the Horn of Africa

as properly, a brand new period of peace and prosperity appears afoot with Ethiopia and

Eritrea signing a peace deal to finish 20 years of enmity and opening their

borders to commerce.

On the worldwide financial system, the World Financial institution projected that

the worldwide financial system will broaden by 2.9% in 2019, down zero.1% from reported in

2018 predicated on softer-than-expected international commerce, elevated monetary market

pressures on some Rising Markets and Creating Economies (EMDEs) and

heightened monetary market pressures on some economies. 

Following an estimated Four.2% progress for 2018, EMDEs’

enlargement for 2019 is predicted to stay unchanged at Four.2% on the again of

weaker-than-expected acceleration in commodity exporting nations, lingering

impact of monetary disaster within the giant economies (together with Turkey, Argentina,

South Africa and so forth.) and tighter exterior financing circumstances. Sub-Saharan Africa

(SSA) area is predicted to have grown by 2.7% in 2018 and development upwards to

three.Four% in 2019 pushed primarily by improved funding in giant economies

together with Nigeria, South Africa and Angola, implementation of funding

pleasant insurance policies and progress in non-resource intensive economies.



Again residence, the environment is charging up because the

incumbent, President Muhammadu Buhari of the All Progressive Congress (APC)

squares towards ex-Vice President Atiku Abubakar of the Individuals’s Democratic

Social gathering (PDP), alongside presidential candidates from different political events for

electoral votes on the February 2019 elections. The upcoming elections to

determine who steers Nigeria’s authorities for the subsequent 4 (Four) years guarantees to

be an fascinating contest, with all eyes on the Unbiased Nationwide Electoral

Fee (INEC) to conduct free, truthful, credible and peaceable elections. 

The financial system was nevertheless weighed by ongoing home

considerations together with the resurgence of Boko Haram assaults within the North East and

the escalation of clashes between cattle herders and farmers which negatively

impacted agricultural output within the worst hit areas. Consequently, GDP from the

Agricultural sector grew by 1.91% in Q3 2018, down 1.16% from three.07% in the identical

interval in 2017. On the entire, the financial system expanded 1.81% in Q3 2018 relative to

1.17% reported in the identical interval in

2017 pushed by a 2.three% progress in non-oil sector

actions, together with Info and Communications, Agriculture, Providers and

Commerce sectors. The oil sector expanded 19.6% quater-on-quater however contracted

2.9% on a year-on-year foundation primarily pushed by decrease oil manufacturing ranges. 

Financial progress was additionally dampened by heightened

capital outflows on the again of rising yields in developed nations comparable to

the US & UK and unsure home political setting. This resulted in

the Nigerian Inventory Change (NSE) All Share Index (ASI), which was the third greatest

performing inventory market in 2017, contracting by 17.81% as buyers exited the

market and repatriated capital.

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Outlook For 2019

Because the political surroundings braces up for the 2019

basic elections with campaigning and electioneering actions gaining

momentum, considerations abound on the state of the financial system and what wants be completed to

stimulate the expansion most desired by the populace. Given the newest efficiency

of the macroeconomic indicators, it’s protected to imagine that regardless of who

emerges as President, the duty forward stays employment creation,

safety,  financial progress, amongst others. 

Opposite to projections concerning the anticipated price of

financial progress in 2019, which embrace predictions of and a couple of.2% by the IMF

and World Financial institution respectively, we consider progress can be slower, nearing 1.75% in

2019. We anticipate that electioneering will dominate fiscal actions within the

first half of the yr, with vital coverage actions resuming within the

second half. Subsequently, the true measure of financial progress might be dependent

on the depth of financial actions within the second half of the yr. This

can be predicated on a peaceable post-election setting, improved

efficiency within the non-oil sectors and constructive oil sector contribution.

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Different prospects of

macro-economic significance for 2019 embrace:

Enterprise and

Regulatory Surroundings

We consider the enterprise

surroundings in 2019 will remaining difficult – following on from 2018. As

highlighted earlier, we anticipate a slowdown in financial actions in H1 2019 due

to election associated uncertainties to additionally weigh on the business with banks exercising

vital restraint and due diligence on all money transactions. We anticipate the

regulatory surroundings to be agency, however supportive and extra conciliatory in 2019

– in view of the necessity to handle investor perceptions to supposedly harsh

regulatory selections and foster confidence within the financial system. 


Surroundings and the 2019 Proposed Price range

With a focused income of

N6.97tn, the proposed finances for 2019, aptly dubbed ‘Price range of Continuity’,

tasks to spend N8.83tn through the yr, leading to a finances deficit of

N1.85tn. Particularly, the price range proposes to generate N3.73tn in Oil Income,

N1.39tn from non-oil sources and the stability N1.23tr from Different Income

sources. Of the N8.83tn deliberate expenditure, N4.04tn was earmarked for

Recurrent Expenditure, N2.03tn for Capital Expenditure and N2.14tn for Debt


Given the current fall in

crude oil costs, and the famous challenges across the effectiveness of the

authorities income equipment, we’re involved concerning the draw back dangers to a

larger deficit. With the current dedication to Nigerian Labour Congress (NLC) to

implement the brand new minimal wage construction in 2019, there’s a larger probability that

authorities expenditure might rise above the projected degree, thus widening the


The actual GDP progress

estimate of three.01% seems aggressive contemplating the marginal progress recorded

in 2018. Provided that the official unemployment figures launched by the NBS for

Q3 2018 places unemployment price at 23.1% (Q3 2017; 18.eight%) which represents about

21 million unemployed Nigerians and that the job creation statistics of the

nation doesn’t recommend the probability of accelerated job creation inside the

subsequent 12 months, attaining a GDP progress of three.01% in 2019 could also be an uphill process

for the federal government.

It’s doubtless that the

Nationwide Meeting will move a finances that comes with the brand new minimal wage

construction and modify for decrease oil worth & manufacturing degree estimates. It

will nevertheless be fascinating to see how these can be balanced with current calls

to reign in fiscal borrowing.

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Oil Worth

& Manufacturing

With crude oil costs

declining within the wake of considerations round extra crude oil provide and a slowdown

in international financial progress, the Group of Petroleum Exporting Nations

(OPEC) and its allies agreed to chop international oil manufacturing by 1.2 mbpd within the first

half of the yr efficient January 2019 in a bid to help crude oil costs in

the close to time period. The brand new OPEC deal will see Nigeria reduce its manufacturing by three.15%

to a cap of 1.685 mbpd (excluding Condensates), which places complete allowable

manufacturing at between 1.885 mbpd and a couple of.035 mbpd after adjusting for estimated

condensate manufacturing of between 200 kbpd and 350 kbpd. General we see a danger

to the price range, which was projected on assumptions of US$60 pb oil worth and a couple of.three

mpbd (together with condensates) manufacturing degree.

To forestall future

vandalization of oil installations, we anticipate the NNPC to duplicate its current

surveillance contract with Ocean Marine Options (OMS) for the safety of

the Trans Forcados Pipeline (TFP) to different installations. The contract requires

the safety supplier, OMS, to be liable for repairs within the occasion of any

injury to assigned installations.  We consider this can go a great distance in

motivating efficient surveillance and curbing pipeline vandalism within the Niger


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Debt Profile Current

releases from the Debt Administration Workplace (DMO) places complete public debt inventory as

at Sep, 30 2018 at N22.43 tn (US$73.2bn), consisting of N15.8tn Home Debt

(Federal and State governments) and N6.6tn Exterior Debt (Federal and state

governments). The info brings to the fore ongoing discussions concerning the

sustainability of the federal government’s debt profile within the face of declining

revenues. The potential capability to repay as highlighted by the debtto-GDP

ratio of 19% has been questioned in lots of quarters as much less necessary than

debt-to-revenue of 65% which measures capability to the repay. Thus, whereas

authorities debt is at present about 19% of nationwide GDP, the price of servicing

the debt is projected to be 24% of the 2019 price range and 30.7% of the deliberate


 With the IMF and the

decrease legislative home expressing considerations concerning the degree of debt and the

problem of considerably growing its income streams, it turns into

crucial for some moderation to be launched to the speed of debt

accumulation. It’s our opinion that irrespective

We’re involved that any

deliberate deficit financing in 2019 will solely balloon the debt profile,

contributing to an extra crowding out of the personal sector, with attendant

impression on financial progress.

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Price, Exterior Reserves and Capital Influx

In 2018, we had projected

the potential convergence of a few of the trade fee benchmarks in existence

on the time. According to our expectations, the underlying charges for the NiFEX

and NAFEX benchmarks did converge and remained inside a marginal unfold of every

different. Thus, solely the official CBN fee – which is used for FX transactions by

the NNPC and the oil corporations – stays under market at N305 –

N307/US$1.  Consequently, what was a a number of trade price regime

is now kind of a tworate regime. The CBN was capable of maintain the foreign money

in 2018 via its market intervention actions with out there knowledge

suggesting that about US$48bn has been offered to the market by way of the CBN


On the corollary, exterior

reserves grew 13.three% in 2018, from US$38.1billion in Dec. 2017 to US$43.1billion

in Dec.

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2018, although it rose as

excessive as US$47.6billion in June 2018. Accretion to reserves was supported by

proceeds from the Eurobond issuances in 2018, robust crude oil receipts

occasioned by the upper oil costs recorded in most of 2018 and constructive

capital flows recorded within the first half of 2018. Based on the NBS, capital

flows contracted 31.1% y/y and 48.5% q/q in Q3 2018, with outflows by portfolio

investments, which accounted for 60% of capital flows, shrinking 38% y/y and

58% q/q. The reversal of capital flows was triggered by the impact of the U.S.

FED financial coverage normalization actions and the strengthening of the U.S.


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In 2019, we anticipate that the

CBN will maintain its interventions within the FX market in a bid to make sure that

charges stay comparatively secure into the elections and maintain its worth

stability aims. Whereas the OPEC manufacturing cap guidelines and decrease oil worth

ranges pose a draw back danger to order accretion, we’re optimistic of an

enchancment in capital flows on the again of a non-violent elections, secure

change fee and engaging fastened revenue yields. 

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Coverage – Curiosity Price and Inflation

As a predominantly import

dependent financial system, any decline within the relative worth of our foreign money may have

a direct influence on the worth degree of products and providers. It subsequently turned

crucial for the Financial Coverage Committee, and the Central Financial institution, to take

essential steps to take care of the worth of the foreign money by sustaining a decent

financial coverage setting. Whereas this has been largely achieved, the impression

of flooding on communities and farm lands, and escalation of farmers-herders

disaster had a damaging impression on meals manufacturing and subsequently meals inflation.

Regardless of ongoing

actions to handle worth stability, we anticipate inflation to rise through the

yr. The the current convergence in trade charges, the rise in meals costs,

new minimal wage and elevated authorities and election associated spending are

anticipated to weigh on the overall worth ranges over the close to time period. We anticipate

headline inflation to return in at a mean of 13.5% in 2019.

Going into 2019, we anticipate

financial coverage to stay contractionary, given the overarching considerations of

sustaining change fee stability. We anticipate that the present financial coverage

variables might be maintained in 2019, whereas Open Market Operations (OMO) by the

CBN might be sustained. Presently, the CBN mops up all extra liquidity from the

banking system utilizing issuances of shortterm securities to banks. It’s our

expectations that this example won’t change, quite may escalate if

cash provide inside the banking system expands over the yr. We anticipate that

short-term rates of interest will rise to mirror the elevated tightness in

market liquidity, with implications for lending actions within the yr and a

slight rise in fastened revenue yields through the yr to encourage the return of

overseas portfolio buyers and capital formation.

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The 5-year time period of the

present CBN Governor, Godwin Emefiele ends in June 2019. Provided that he’s

eligible to serve a second time period, we anticipate that his re-appointment or successor

will probably be introduced earlier than the top of March 2019. A change in management on the

Apex financial institution might have implications for the financial coverage path of the



The frequency and stealth

nature of the resurgent Boko Haram assaults might seem to have overshadowed the

successes recorded by the military towards the sect within the final three or so years.

In a associated improvement, the herders – farmers disaster has additionally induced immeasurable

destruction of lives and properties within the final 12 months.

Of grave concern nevertheless,

is the allegation of collusion with the militia levelled towards the Nigerian

Military within the killings in Taraba & Benue states, and the accusations towards

prime military commanders of arming Nigerian troopers with out of date weapons whereas

enriching themselves with the funds meant for buying refined weapons

to struggle insurgency. These allegations are weighty and echoes the necessity to

reform the safety infrastructure of the nation. These reforms have to be

holistic and strategically flawless as the specified financial progress will not be

attained if the safety material of the nation is perceived as largely


The Nigerian

Banking Business

Overview of 2018

The business had its truthful

share of occasions in 2018 – from the implementation of IFRS 9 requirements, the

institution of a bridge financial institution, Polaris Financial institution to imagine the belongings and

liabilities of the defunct Skye Financial institution, the decision of the 9Mobile facility to

the proposed merger between Entry and Diamond banks. In the course of the yr, Banks

needed to cope with tight system liquidity, declining mortgage guide and an increase in

NPLs. In contrast to 2017, banks’ shares closed the yr in adverse territory because the

NSE Banking Index declined by 16.1%.

Outlook for 2019

Brief time period rates of interest

will stay elevated, and market liquidity tight because of the anticipated

contractionary financial coverage. All present coverage measures deployed in the direction of

attaining the financial aims of the CBN ought to stay in drive – a minimum of

up by way of to half yr 2019. In mild of the an anticipated improve in federal

authorities borrowings, the excessive rate of interest regime might exacerbate any

crowding out impact which can negatively influence financial institution lending charges and price of

funds, with attendant implications for progress and profitability.

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The extremely regulated

overseas trade setting is predicted to stay unchanged. With overseas

trade reserves closing 2018 at US$43.1billion, an estimated 15 months of

import, we see room for the CBN to take care of a coverage of defending the foreign money.

Whereas this, in our opinion, might present some degree of stability and constructive

view for the foreign money within the brief time period, a continued decline in crude oil costs will create draw back dangers to additional

accretion to the reserves, and capability to proceed to help to foreign money. It

is just not unlikely subsequently that we’ll witness a divergence within the charges

provided on the CBN interventions and charges out there on the Buyers &

Exporters (I&E) Window. We anticipate the CBN to proceed to watch actions

inside the market that would adversely have an effect on overseas trade stability.

Asset High quality

An in depth scan of the

business reveals that there’s a constructive relationship between performing mortgage

guide and elevated international oil costs, and the reason being not far-fetched as over

30% of the entire business publicity are to the oil and fuel sector. With oil

costs comparatively elevated, the business needed to cope with the mixed

impact of IFRS 9 leading to elevated mortgage loss expenses towards shareholders’

fund which decreased capital, declining mortgage guide because of the comparatively low

demand for credit score and lowered capability of banks to lend. We anticipate banks to

intensify efforts to develop their mortgage books albeit to high quality danger score names,

and in addition anticipate NPLs to say no from presents degree.


The impression evaluation of

IFRS 9 on the business revealed that the transition to the brand new commonplace

resulted in decrease capital place in view of the shift from Incurred Loss to

Anticipated Credit score Loss (ECL) mannequin. In impact, most banks noticed between 150-500

foundation factors (bps) shaved off their capital, leading to vital decline

within the regulatory Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) of some banks under the minimal

of 15% (and 16% for D-SIBs) bringing to fore the necessity for these banks to boost

recent capital. In a transfer to cushion the impact of the ECL provisions on tier 1

capital, the CBN launched a Four-year transitional association which can

require banks to carry static the Adjusted Day One impression of IFRS 9 impairment

figures and unfold it over a Four-year interval.  Consequently, capital

place of banks will enhance relative to the figures that have been revealed for

the 2018 reporting durations. We anticipate to see extra steps by banks to cowl any

shortfalls of their capital ratios together with elevating qualifying debt capital to

shore up their capital base.


Aggressive Panorama 

Growing Competitors for


The business continues to

face growing competitors from Monetary Know-how (FinTechs) and different

non-bank corporations providing a variety of monetary providers to the retail

and MSME segments leveraging know-how. FinTechs have been capable of obtain a

truthful disruption of the retail banking panorama by means of the deployment of

simplified banking providers which has revolutionized the service choices of

business banks. It’s nevertheless believed that their capability to successfully

achieve vital market share is restricted with out collaboration. The relative

ease with which Fintechs approached and gained market share within the retail

lending area, a hitherto unserved market, has prompted business banks to

give this extra focus. We anticipate to see a rise in competitors amongst banks

to seize market share within the retail and micro/small enterprise area over the

course of 2019.

A extra compelling menace

nevertheless pertains to the current determination by the CBN to license Cost Service

Banks (PSBs) to facilitate transactions in remittance providers, microsavings

and withdrawal providers in rural areas. The first concept is to drive monetary

inclusion by leveraging the capability of different entities, just like the telcos with

present infrastructure within the areas not simply reached by financial institution networks. Whereas

the PSBs are to be prohibited from offering lending providers and collaborating

within the FX market, they may be capable of supply different providers, thus competing

with business banks for the pool of earnings and in addition be sure that the battle

for retail is gained utilizing digital and cellular technique. Whereas that is internet destructive

for the business, we view this as constructive for patrons because it has the capability

to enhance customer support, improve product and repair choices, improve

monetary inclusion and drive the adoption of a digitization of banking


Consolidation within the


Like George W. Bush’s

choice to provide Michelle Obama what seemed to be a sweet quite than the

handshakes he provided to different former U.S first women at his father’s funeral

service, the proposed merger between Entry

Financial institution and Diamond Financial institution got here

as a shock to many after each banks debunked studies of the deliberate merger a

few weeks earlier than the formal announcement was made. The proposed merger, which

nonetheless requires the approval of shareholders and regulators, is predicted to make

the brand new entity the most important business financial institution in addition to the most important retail franchise

within the nation. Barring any unexpected points, the proposed merger will

improve the aggressive panorama within the business. The post-integration

challenges and draw back dangers can’t solely be dismissed on the again of

historic expertise of one of many banks however we anticipate that the method will

be well-executed by the banks and correctly monitored by the related

regulators. The success of the merger might set off different such mergers, with

the potential to strengthen the business.


Within the wake of normalizing

rates of interest, uncertainty within the oil market, slowing international financial system and

capital flight from rising markets, Nigeria’s financial efficiency might be

largely depending on the interaction of those exterior elements particularly the

international oil market in a yr that can be cut up into two halves. The primary half

will see politics and electioneering dominate a lot to the detriment of financial

actions which can translate into muted capital influx, elevated strain on

the naira, accelerated FX intervention and declining exterior reserves.

We anticipate some degree of

normalcy to return within the 2nd half of the yr translating to strengthened

investor confidence, elevated capital flows, softened strain on the naira

and reducing yields on authorities securities in addition to the probability of

elevated inflationary strain. That stated, the continued normalization of

rates of interest by the U.S. FED, decrease oil costs, weaker-than-expected oil

output and a tense post-election surroundings pose draw back dangers to our



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Associated Information

1.       Glimmer Of Hope

– Macro and Markets: 2018 Assessment and 2019 Outlook

2.      Nigeria 2019

Analysis Outlook: One Hurdle In Q1, Others To Comply with

three.      NSR H1 2019 (9)

– Fastened Revenue – Will Yields Hump or Shift?

Four.      International Overseas

Funding Flows Dip To Lowest Ranges In A Decade

5.      Discourse on

Nigeria’s Funding Outlook 2019

6.      NSR H1 2019 (eight)

– Nigerian Fiscal – Extra Pressure On FG Funds

7.      Fitch Scores:

International Progress Outlook Dented Not Dismantled

eight.     NSR H1 2019 (7)

– Financial Coverage – Sustaining The Narrative

9.      Surviving

Unsure Occasions within the Nigerian Monetary Market

10.  NSR H1 2019 (6)

– Nigerian Inflation – Boiling Under The Floor

11.   Afrinvest

Financial and Monetary Market: 2018 Evaluation and 2019 Outlook – On The Precipice

12.  NSR H1 2019 (5)

– Foreign money – A Check Of Nerves And Resilience

13.  Coronation

Analysis Points 2019 Financial Outlook for Nigeria; A Story of Two Halves

14.  NSR H1 2019 (Four)

– Home Financial system – Secure Progress In Dire Want Of Recent Impetus

15.   NSR H1 2019 (three)

– Crude Oil – Not Nice However Not All Gloom Both

16.  Meristem 2019

Outlook Report – Resilience in Vulnerability

17.   NSR H1 2019 (2)

– MEA Area: A Yr of Fragile Progress

18.  NSR H1 2019 (1)

– International Progress: New Yr, Similar Rhetoric, Matching Progress

19.  5 Key International

Developments to Watch in 2019

20. Nigeria Outlook

2019: Crusing Via The Storm

21.  FSDH Analysis

Expects Modest Restoration in Equities’ Market in 2019

22. Nigeria Financial

Outlook Convention 2019

23. Nigeria-Based mostly

Entry Financial institution And Diamond Financial institution Scores Affirmed On Introduced Merger; Outlook


24. Fitch Locations

Diamond and Entry on Score Watch on Merger Announcement

25.  Nigeria 2019

Outlook – As The Dominoes Fall

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